TN, IPS, MVA / PVA: Panels im Überblick

Der Monitormarkt wird mit den verschiedensten Paneltypen von Herstellern wie LG & Samsung überflutet. Nicht selten verliert der Kunde auf der Suche nach einem neuen Monitor den Überblick, weshalb wir die folgende Übersicht erstellt haben.

TN

TN ist die Abkürzung für “Twisted Nematic” (engl. für gedreht nematisch). Die Erfinder der ersten nematischen Drehzelle sind Martin Schadt und Wolfgang Helfrich, weswegen diese auch Schadt-Helfrich-Zelle gennant wird. Erfunden wurde diese Technik Ende 1970. Seit 1971 wird die Technik in LCD-Displays verwendet. Wer den Aufbau und die Funktionsweise solch einer Zelle verstehen möchte, dem legen wir den entsprechenden Wikipedia Artikel ans Herz, denn hier werden nur Vor- und Nachteile der einzelnen Panels erarbeitet.

IPS

IPS ist die Abkürzung für “In-Plane Switching” (engl. für in der Ebene schaltend) und folgte Mitte 1973 kurz nach den TN-Panels. Das erste Patent für IPS-LCDs wurde 1990 von der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Deutschland angemeldet. Weitere Patente folgten 1992/93 von Hitachi (und nicht etwa von LG). Diese LCDs versprachen – im Gegensatz zu TN-LCDs – viel bessere Blickwinkel, kein weißes Licht bei Druck (entscheidend für mobile Geräte) und klare Bilder bei konstanten Reaktionszeiten. Die Nachteile sind jedoch der höhere Stromverbrauch (bis zu +15%) und die hochen Produktionskosten. Aktuell entwickelt LG die neuen IPS-Panels wie H-IPS, E-IPS, P-IPS oder AH-IPS. (Super) PLS (Plane-to-Line Switching) ist eine Weiterentwicklung von Samsung und soll die Blickwinkelstabilität weiter erhöhen, besseres Bild liefern (unter anderem 10% mehr Helligkeit) und deutlich flexibler sein (bei bis zu 15% geringeren Produktionskosten). Entsprechende Geräte sind seit 2011 erhältlich.

VA (MVA / PVA)

VA bedeutet “Vertical-Alignment” (engl. für vertikale Ausrichtung) und wird in MVA (Multi-domain Vertical Alignment) und PVA (Patterned Vertical Alignment) eingeteilt, wobei Ersteres die ursprüngliche Technik von Fujitsu aus dem Jahre 1996 ist und PVA eine Weiterentwicklung von Samsung ist. MVA soll im Gegensatz zu TN und IPS gute Blickwinkel bei sehr gutem Kontrast ermöglichen. Im Vergleich zu IPS fällt der Stromverbrauch geringer aus, ist jedoch nicht so gering wie der, der TN-Panels. Da die Reaktionszeit dieser Panels sehr hoch ist, neigen sie bei schnellen Bewegungen (z.B. Gaming) zur Schlierenbildung. Die Weiterentwicklung S-PVA (Super-PVA) von Samsung versucht genau das zu verhindern. Aus diesen Gründen werden MVA und PVA-Panels meist im professionellen Bereich verwendet und von Spielern ehr vermieden.

Zusammenfassung

Folgende Tabelle fasst nochmals alle Vor- und Nachteile der einzelnen Paneltypen zusammen (Tabelle als Grafik):

TN

IPS

MVA / PVA

Blickwinkel

akzeptabel

sehr gut

sehr gut

Kontrast

gut

gut

sehr gut

Reaktionszeit

sehr gut

gut

gut

Stromverbrauch

sehr gut

akzeptabel

gut

Preis

niedrig

hoch

hoch

 

Titelbild: “Lcd.jpg” von Richard Bartz aka Makro Freak (Beschreibung: 5x Makroaufnahme eines Samsung LC-Displays, Änderung: Bild zugeschnitten)

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